The Justification of Scientific Change (Synthese Library) by C.R. Kordig

By C.R. Kordig

During this ebook I speak about the justification of medical switch and argue that it rests on differing types of invariance. by contrast historical past I con­ sider notions of remark, that means, and regulative criteria. My place is against a few greatly influential and present perspectives. progressive new rules about the philosophy of technological know-how have lately been complex through Feyerabend, Hanson, Kuhn, Toulmin, and others. There are transformations between their perspectives and every in a few appreciate differs from the others. it truly is, despite the fact that, now not the variations, yet really the similarities which are of fundamental obstacle to me right here. The declare that there are pervasive presuppositions basic to medical in­ vestigations appears necessary to the perspectives of those males. each one may extra carry that transitions from one clinical culture to a different strength radical adjustments in what's saw, within the meanings of the phrases hired, and within the metastandards concerned. they might declare that overall substitute­ ment, now not aid, is what does, and will, happen in the course of medical revolutions. I argue that the proposed arguments for radical observational variance, for radical that means variance, and for radical variance of regulative criteria with appreciate to clinical transitions all fail. I additional argue that those positions are in themselves unbelievable and methodologically bad. I comic strip an account of the reason of clinical swap which preserves the benefits and avoids the shortcomings of the technique of radical that means variance theorists.

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Data are highly relevant to a tentative 30 THE JUSTIFICA TION OF SCIENTIFIC CHANGE theory which is advanced for consideration when either their occurrence or non-occurrence can in some sense be centrally inferred from this theory. And only these data - the relevant data - should be collected. Some thinkers have unfortunately denied this. As Feyerabend puts it, What is to be criticized is the attempt without much guidance from thought to collect as many useless facts as possible from as many domains as possible, and to expect that science will one day miraculously profit from the collection thus assembled.

If "However construed, the construing is there in the seeing" ([27], p. 23) then we may ask, precisely where in the seeing is it. It does not help whatsoever to say that what happens is a "sudden and unstructured event" ([42], p. 121). This "answer" is nothing more than an expression of a basic unintelligibility of their view. More traditional approaches to the philosophy of science would have scientific activity consist in the interpretation of neutral and fixed observational data. And a virtue of such approaches is that these questions simply do not arise; prima facie, at least, they would not be legitimate questions within the conceptual framework of a more traditional philosophy of science.

Return to an earlier example for a moment (rIC). Mohammed X, the black Muslim, possesses a quite different set of beliefs than Adolph Ubermensch, the Nazi. Each would interrogate the young heavyweight (Cassius Clay = Mohammed Ali) somewhat differently. Each would ask him somewhat different questions before deciding whether he should be stripped of his championship and imprisoned. And they might differ as to his guilt or innocence. Yet, in spite of their widely differing beliefs they would have asked him many of the same questions.

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