The Flexible Phenotype: A Body-Centred Integration of by Theunis Piersma

By Theunis Piersma

The versatile Phenotype makes an attempt a real synthesis of animal body structure, habit, and ecology by way of constructing an empirical argument that describes the intimate connections among animal phenotype and setting. It begins with a synthesis of the foundations guiding present study in ecophysiology, habit, and ecology, illustrating every one point with the unique result of empirical paintings on as broad quite a number organisms as attainable. The built-in tale of the versatile phenotype is weaved during the publication at the foundation of the authors' long term examine software on migrant shorebirds and their invertebrate prey. those birds shuttle significant distances from one setting to a different, and the altering nature in their our bodies displays the numerous choice pressures skilled in those very diversified destinations. In essence, the authors argue for the lifestyles of direct, measurable, hyperlinks among phenotype and ecology. Their publication outlines a extra encompassing method of evolutionary ecology, in response to first ideas in body structure, habit, and ecology. It aspires to inspire one other integration of ecology and body structure, in addition to fostering a collaborative study schedule among ecologists and physiologists.

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To maintain oxidative metabolism at such a level, a continuous flow of oxygen through a series of connected compartments has to be maintained: from the pool in environmental air, oxygen is carried into the lung by inspiration, is transferred to the red blood cells, moved into the tissues by circulation, and finally reaches the cells and their mitochondria by diffusion. ’ So began the paper in which Richard Taylor and Ewald Weibel (1981) articulated the principle of ‘symmorphosis’ for the first time.

When red knots feed on shellfish under temperate winter conditions, they ingest 27 times the amount of water per day than is predicted on the basis of their body mass alone (Visser et al. 2000). They achieve this notable water uptake for two reasons. 9 kJ per g wet mass). Second, the knots’ energy demands during winter are relatively high, for reasons explained in the previous section. Thus, it may seem that, whenever enough harvestable molluscs are available, red knots should never run out of water.

Think of a bird’s body as consisting of an essential part, without which it cannot survive, and a remaining part consisting of reserves and stores. The essential part cannot be catabolized, since if this were to happen, the animal would die immediately because of insufficient energy output. e. the nonessential part, and needs to supply the entire body, essential and non-essential components included. A bird dies of starvation when the energy supply is less than the energy demand. 61 25 20 Dutch Delta Wadden Sea Mauritania Netherlands capt.

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