By Marc Pastre
Technique for the electronic Calibration of Analog Circuits and platforms indicates easy methods to chill out the intense layout constraints in analog circuits, permitting the belief of high-precision structures despite low-performance parts. a whole method is proposed, and 3 purposes are detailed.To commence with, an in-depth research of latest repayment recommendations for analog circuit imperfections is conducted. The M/2+M sub-binary digital-to-analog converter is carefully studied, and using this very low-area circuit along side a successive approximations set of rules for electronic repayment is defined. an entire method in line with this reimbursement circuit and set of rules is then proposed. The detection and correction of analog circuit imperfections is studied, and a simulation software permitting the obvious simulation of analog circuits with automated repayment blocks is introduced.The first software indicates how the sub-binary M/2+M constitution could be hired as a traditional digital-to-analog converter if calibration and radix conversion algorithms are implemented.The moment program, a SOI 1T DRAM, is then awarded. A electronic set of rules chooses an appropriate reference worth that compensates a number of circuit imperfections jointly, from the feel amplifier offset to the dispersion of the reminiscence learn currents.The 3rd software is the calibration of the sensitivity of a present dimension microsystem according to a corridor magnetic box sensor. utilizing a version of the chopper modulation, the spinning present procedure, mixed with a moment modulation of a reference sign, the sensitivity of the entire procedure is constantly measured with out interrupting general operation. A thermal glide less than 50 ppm/°C is completed, that is 6 to ten occasions under in state of the art implementations. additionally, the calibration approach additionally compensates drifts as a result of mechanical stresses and getting older.
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Additional info for Methodology for the Digital Calibration of Analog Circuits and Systems: with Case Studies
In both figures, the grey line is the identity function y = x. See also figure 18 for the R = 2 case. 14 Analog output value (A) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 Figure 24. 75 DAC Chapter 3: Digital compensation circuits 33 When the radix is decreased, the characteristics move down from the ideal y = x line. The converter becomes non-linear, non-monotonic (some steps are down instead of up) and redundant (the same output code is generated by two or more different input words). The advantage of the sub-binary radix converter is that it is less likely to have missing codes than a radix-2 converter.
0 -4 10 10 -3 10 -2 10 fT -1 10 0 10 1 10 2 AZ Figure 13. 10) 18 Digital Calibration of Analog Circuits and Systems 60 50 m(f k) 40 30 20 10 -2 10 10 -1 10 0 10 1 fk/fAZ Figure 14. Effect of the 1/f corner frequency on the resulting noise 5 CORRELATED DOUBLE SAMPLING Correlated double sampling (CDS) is similar to the autozero technique presented in section 4. The main difference is the following: With autozero, the noise is first sampled, and then the amplifier performs continuous-time output, subtracting the sampled noise value.
The total amount of foldover noise depends on the amplifier bandwidth: The smaller the bandwidth, the less noise is aliased in the baseband. For this reason, fAZ should not be chosen much smaller than fc. 7) Figure 12 shows the result of the choice of an optimal fc/fAZ ratio, whereas figure 13 corresponds to a suboptimal one. 0 -4 10 10 -3 10 -2 10 fT -1 10 0 10 1 10 2 AZ Figure 12. 6 again. 8) This function has a multiplicative effect on the overall resulting noise function Sfold. Figure 14 shows a normalized plot of m(fk).