By Lynette A. Jones, Susan J. Lederman
Human Hand Function is a multidisciplinary publication that studies the sensory and motor elements of ordinary hand functionality from either neurophysiological and behavioral views. Lynette Jones and Susan Lederman current hand functionality as a continuum starting from actions which are primarily sensory in nature to people who have a powerful motor part. They delineate 4 different types of functionality alongside this sensorimotor continuum--tactile sensing, lively haptic sensing, prehension, and non-prehensile expert movements--that they use as a framework for interpreting and synthesizing the consequences from a extensive variety of reports that experience contributed to our figuring out of the way the traditional human hand services. The publication starts with a historic evaluation of analysis at the hand and a dialogue of the hand's evolutionary improvement by way of anatomical constitution. the next chapters assessment the examine in all the 4 different types alongside the continuum, protecting themes corresponding to the in depth spatial, temporal, and thermal sensitivity of the hand, the function of hand hobbies in spotting universal gadgets, the keep watch over of achieving and greedy pursuits, and the association of keyboard talents. Jones and Lederman additionally research how sensory and motor functionality develops within the hand from delivery to outdated age, and the way the character of the top effector (e.g., a unmarried finger or the complete hand) that's used to engage with the surroundings impacts the categories of knowledge acquired and the projects played. The publication closes with an overview of ways easy study at the hand has contributed to an array of extra utilized domain names, together with verbal exchange structures for the blind, haptic interfaces utilized in teleoperation and virtual-environment purposes, assessments used to evaluate hand impairments, and haptic exploration in artwork. Human Hand Function could be a beneficial source for pupil researchers in neuroscience, cognitive psychology, engineering, human-technology interplay, and body structure.
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Extra info for Human Hand Function
SA I, SA II, and FA I, but not FA II units) respond; however, in most units the responses are broadly tuned to a speciﬁc direction. With respect to the SA I population, response sensitivity is greatest to tangential force components applied in the distal direction (Birznieks, Jenmalm, Goodwin, & Johansson, 2001; Goodwin & Wheat, 2004). SA units in the primate ﬁngerpad also show sustained responses to lateral stretch (Srinivasan, Whitehouse, & LaMotte, 1990). 1). 3). 4). However, because they respond evenly across their entire receptive ﬁeld, they are poorer at discriminating very ﬁne spatial details.
This information provides the basis for the perception of the amplitude and velocity of ﬁnger movements and the static position of the hand. It also enables us to estimate the weight and compliance of objects supported by the hand. Information about changes in limb position and movement arises from other sensory sources, such as receptors in the skin and joints. Cutaneous afferents from the hand can reﬂexively affect fusimotor neurons innervating forearm extensor muscles and so make an indirect, as well as direct, contribution to proprioception (Gandevia, Wilson, Cordo, & Burke, 1994).
The anterolateral system has both direct and indirect connections to the thalamus via the reticular formation in the medulla and the pons. From the thalamus, there are projections to the primary somatosensory cortex, the dorsal anterior insular cortex, and the anterior cingulate gyrus (E. G. Jones, 1985). Tactile and proprioceptive information is transmitted to the cerebral cortex via the central axons of dorsal root ganglion cells, the ﬁrst-order neurons, that enter the spinal cord. These axons ascend directly to the medulla through the ipsilateral dorsal columns, in what is known as the dorsal column—medial lemniscal system.