Human Growth and Development by N. Cameron

By N. Cameron

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If we want to describe causes of small size (weight or length), the picture is different to the description of the causes of growth delay. Taking into account that, in a clinical setting, this problem is usually presented as smallness, we describe causes of short stature defined as height below the third centile of appropriate height-for-age (distance) charts. Malformations, Deformations, or Alteration of Body Proportions In these cases, short stature is only a part of the clinical picture. , fetal hydantoin syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome).

Malformations, Deformations, or Alteration of Body Proportions In these cases, short stature is only a part of the clinical picture. , fetal hydantoin syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome). Some syndromes evolve with a normal growth velocity in childhood, such as Silver-Russell syndrome, but others with a slow growth velocity, such as Turner’s syndrome. 25 Some syndromes are quite frequent (for example, Turner’s syndrome has an incidence of 1 in every 2500 female births), and others are rarer, such as achondroplasia (one case in every 26,000 births), see Chapters 10 and 11.

During the first 2 years, the genes expressing parental size become activated and some children may shift linear growth, changing centiles on distance charts, until they achieve, at around the second year, their genetically determined location on the centiles; that is, canalization. Infancy and childhood are sensitive periods in human life. Interference with the growth process in early years may have long-term consequences for adult health. Pediatric surveillance and the promotion of normal growth in infancy and childhood includes the knowledge of its physiological basis and the skills for the selection and performance of adequate anthropometric measurements.

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