How to make - and use a small chemical laboratory by Raymond Francis Yates

By Raymond Francis Yates

This ancient publication can have various typos and lacking textual content. dealers can obtain a loose scanned replica of the unique booklet (without typos) from the writer. now not listed. now not illustrated. 1920 Excerpt: ...be "fire polished" in a sizzling flame. l SEALING A PLATINUM cord IN GLASS the one tough factor approximately this operation is acquiring the platinum. The tube or glass bulb is first drawn out to a jet and the cord is then inserted. the purpose of the jet is revolved within the flame until eventually the glass melts. it's then allowed to chill very slowly. it really is, in fact, understood that twine made up of different metals can't be sealed into glass as a result of the unequal co-eflicient of enlargement of the 2 fabrics. becoming a member of TUBING AND MAKING TEES The operation of constructing a Tee" joint calls for no little endurance, and the experimenter will not be develop into discouraged if his first test is unsuccessful. A seven or 8 inch size of the tubing is first closed at one finish through heating it in a flame, rotating it until eventually the top is totally fused jointly. A pointed flame is then directed prompt the place it truly is wanted to make the joint. whilst this spot turns into completely heated, the open finish of the tube is blown via, which forces the glass to half and make a gap the place the wall was once heated with the pointed flame. This gap can be of in regards to the similar diameter because the tube that is to shape the opposite a part of the tube that is to be joined to the opening. in this operation, the tip of the 1st tube could be saved closed with the finger and, whilst either the tubes are scorching, the top of the second one tube is thoroughly introduced in touch with the perimeters of the opening. After the tubes turn into just a little welded jointly during this place, they're taken out of the flame. the top of the 1st tube is then blown into, and then the joint is back put within the flame and heated until eventually the.Qglass is carefully fused jointly. The "Tee" is then blown into until eventually the purpose of junction entir...

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Lie Upward-moving "dispersed solids Downward-moving : \

Grace's method consists of estimating viscosity from the shape of bubbles in fluidized beds. Thus observations of rising gas bubbles in liquids show them to be spherical, ellipsoidal or spherical-cap shaped 128-130 . 28) are typically formed in liquids of low viscosity and have an included angle, Θ, of about 100°41. As the liquid viscosity increases however the angle Θ also increases and the bubbles tend to become more spherical in shape. 90) μΑ Here db is the diameter of the sphere of volume Vb, Ub is the bubble rise velocity (calculated from the Davies-Taylor relationship Ub = % gl/2al/l), p s is the particle density and μΑ is the apparent viscosity of the emulsion phase which is assumed to have a voidage emf equivalent to that at minimum fluidization.

55) where Ug is the superficial gas velocity, ε is the bed voidage and Up the particle velocity. This phenomenon is feasible on hydrodynamic grounds only if the individual particles form into relatively stable agglomerates with correspondingly larger terminal fall velocities. 83) 12 Solid r a t e ; G 5, l b / f t 2s So//cfe = FCC 10 Slip velocity; ^Fast fluidized lime 8 6 Turbulent regime Breakdown . 83) 36 Some fundamental aspects offluidization velocities and have observed them to undergo considerable back mixing.

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