Historical Biogeography: An Introduction by Liliana Katinas, Paula Posadas, Jorge Victor Crisci

By Liliana Katinas, Paula Posadas, Jorge Victor Crisci

Though biogeography should be easily defined--the examine of the geographic distributions of organisms--the topic itself is very complicated, related to quite a number medical disciplines and a bewildering variety of ways. For comfort, biogeographers have famous learn traditions: ecological biogeography and historic biogeography.

This e-book is smart of the profound revolution that ancient biogeography has passed through within the final twenty years, and of the ensuing confusion over its foundations, easy suggestions, equipment, and relationships to different disciplines of comparative biology. utilizing case experiences, the authors clarify and illustrate the basics and the main usually used equipment of this self-discipline. They express the reader the way to inform whilst a historic biogeographic technique is named for, tips on how to make a decision what sort of information to gather, find out how to opt for the easiest approach for the matter to hand, how you can practice the required calculations, tips on how to pick out and observe a working laptop or computer software, and the way to interpret results.

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Some of the original postulates of Simpson’s work were later refuted, such as the extinction of South American mammals because of competition, or the idea that all the biogeographic particularities of the mammals’ history are best explained with the theory that the continents had the same identity and position in the past that they have today. However, there is much evidence that supports the idea of a North American origin for many South American mammals (for example, Felis, Tapirus, Tayassu), and that dispersal of these ancestral taxa occurred from the Northern Hemisphere through the Isthmus of Panama during the Pliocene.

These authors em- 25 26 METHODS IN HISTORICAL BIOGEOGRAPHY phasize the historical component in the area of endemism definition, leaving aside the ecological component (Posadas & Miranda–Esquivel, 1999). However, the origin of all biogeographic patterns is never completely historical nor completely ecological, but the result of a combination of both kinds of processes (Morrone & Crisci, 1995). Delimitation As mentioned earlier, another question both central and controversial to the understanding of areas of endemism is their delimitation.

On the other hand, Crisp and colleagues (1995) consider that, in general, the different kinds of areas of endemism delimitations are controversial. These authors emphasize that Morrone’s method (1994a) is objective and it allows certain distribution overlapping, but question whether or not the hierarchical model of PAE is adequate to delimit areas. Linder (2001) postulated that since there are several methods for finding areas of endemism, it is desirable to have optimality criteria 27 28 METHODS IN HISTORICAL BIOGEOGRAPHY that allow the researcher to establish which scheme returns the best estimate of the areas of endemism for the set of species included in the analysis.

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