By Stacey E Mills MD
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Additional resources for Histology for Pathologists
The length of the hair is also related to the amount of the anagen hair. More than 80% of hair present in normal scalp is anagen hair. The catagen phase takes two to three weeks, and the telogen phase may last a few months. The color of normal hair depends on the amount and distribution of the melanin in the hair shaft (2 4). Normal human epidermal melanocytes may synthesize both eumelanin and pheomelanin (105). The melanins in black hair are eumelanin (characterized by the presence of ellipsoidal eumelanosomes), while those in red hair are mainly pheomelanin (ascribed to spherical pheomelanosomes) (105,106).
These granules are present both intra- and extracellularly, are approximately 300 nm in diameter, and are not visible by light microscopy. Their functions are to provide epidermal lipids, increase the barrier property of the cornified layer against water loss, and aid in the desquamation process. This interface between the squamous and granular layer is also the site of synthesis and storage of cholesterol (5 7,6 9) . 3) . 9 The Cornified Layer The cornified layer is composed of multiple layers of polyhedral eosinophilic keratinocytes that lack a nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles.
Sebaceous Glands The sebaceous glands are holocrine glands associated with hair follicles. Their secretions are made of disintegrated cells. The palms and soles are the only regions devoid of sebaceous glands. Sebaceous glands are prominent in facial skin. They are also seen in the buccal mucosa, vermilion of the lip (Fordyce's spot), prepuce, labia minora, and, at times, in the parotid gland. The sebaceous glands are lobulated structures composed of multiple acini in some locations like the head and neck; in other sites, such as chest, they are composed of a single acinus.