Galen on the Brain: Anatomical Knowledge and Physiological by Dr Julius Rocca

By Dr Julius Rocca

This publication is a examine of the ways that Galen sought to set up the mind because the regent half (hegemonikon) of the physique, using a rigorous anatomical epistemology and a frequently subtle (but perforce restricted) set of physiological arguments half One surveys the clinical and philosophical previous within which the examine of the mind occured, and appears on the fabrics and techniques which Galen employs to valid his hegemonic argumentation. half examines Galen's anatomical knowing of the mind, in particular the ventricles. half 3 bargains a severe review of Galen's physiolgy of the mind. this can be the 1st monograph to provide a close account of this topic, atmosphere it in the cultural and highbrow contexts of its period, and should be of curiosity to these in classics, scientific historical past, historical past andphilosophy of technological know-how and the heritage of rules.

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Extra resources for Galen on the Brain: Anatomical Knowledge and Physiological Speculation in the Second Century Ad (Studies in Ancient Medicine) (Multilingual Edition)

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Sacr. are striking (cf. Harris, 1973, 27; HGP II, 377 n. 2). 36 Alcmaeon and Diogenes made several observations about the brain and its connections with other parts of the body and with the external environment. 37 To these natural philosophers there is an awareness that the brain has connections with the body—however anatomically vague these connections are, and that a linking of the brain with the outside air allows (and mediates) intelligence. 38 In particular, the use of air (or pneuma) linked to an internal carrier system is an idea which will have increasingly important physiological considerations for encephalocentrist and cardiocentrist alike.

Cf. ; Lloyd, 1979, 24 n. 79, 161 n. 185. 38 According to the doxography, the Presocratic Philolaus (c. 470–385 BC) in On Nature (Fr. 13 Huffman) apparently regarded the head (kefalÆ) as érxÆ or “first principle” of the intellect (nÒow). The brain is one of a four-fold system of érxa¤; the other locations being the heart (kard¤a), responsible for “life and sensation” (cuxØ ka‹ a‡syhiw); the naval (ÙmfalÒw), responsible for “rooting and first growth” (=iz≈siow ka‹ énafÊsiow toË pr≈tou) and the “reproductive organs” (afido›on) for “fertilisation as well as generation” (sp°rmatow katabolçw te ka‹ gennÆsiow).

Propr. p. 94,18–21 Mueller; XIX. 12–13 K, Galen writes he dedicated De causis respirationis and his (lost) work on the voice to Boethus. Galen notes that his great exercise in teleological physiology, De usu partium, was greeted enthusiastically by the Aristotelians in Rome. Lib. Propr. p. 100,18–22 Mueller; XIX. 20 K. On the strength of Aristotelian philosophy in this period see Gottschalk, 1987. 45 ¶rvta t∞w énatomik∞w §rasye‹w yevr¤aw. II. 216 K. When Boethus left to take up his post as governor, he took with him the first six books of Galen’s De placitis Hippocratis et Platonis, and the first book of De usu partium.

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