Cranial Nerves: Anatomy and Clinical Comments by Linda Wilson-Pauwels, Elizabeth J. Akesson

By Linda Wilson-Pauwels, Elizabeth J. Akesson

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Featuring 3-dimensional, colour-coded illustrations, this vintage paintings describes how the 12 significant nerve platforms attach the mind to the physique platforms they keep an eye on. The drawings exhibit the direction and place of every nerve, in addition to its useful modalities: this enables scholars to profit not just the site of every nerve approach, yet how the platforms act in live performance to accomplish particular capabilities. this article serves as a educating software for all overall healthiness technological know-how scholars who learn neuro- and gross anatomy, together with scholars in medication, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing and actual remedy.

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Additional info for Cranial Nerves: Anatomy and Clinical Comments

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As it leaves the cranial cavity each nerve branches extensively. Page 51 Figure V­1 Overview of the Trigeminal Nerve Page 52 TABLE V­2 Branches of the Trigeminal Nerve Division Sensory Motor Ophthalmic (V1) Lacrimal Frontal Supratrochlear Supraorbital Nerve to frontal sinus Nasociliary Long and short ciliary Infratrochlear Ethmoidal Anterior Internal nasal External nasal Posterior Meningeal branch (to the tentorium cerebelli) Maxillary (V2) Zygomatic Zygomaticotemporal Zygomaticofacial Infraorbital External nasal branch Superior labial Superior alveolar nerves Posterior Middle Anterior Pterygopalatine Orbital branches Greater and lesser palatine nerves Posterior superior nasal branches Pharyngeal Meningeal branch (to middle and anterior cranial fossae) Mandibular (V3) Buccal Medial pterygoid Auriculotemporal Nerve to tensor veli palatini * Facial Nerve to tensor tympani Anterior auricular Masseteric External acoustic meatus Deep temporal Articular nerve Lateral pterygoid (to temporomandibular joint) Nerve to mylohyoid Superficial temporal Nerve to anterior belly of digastric Lingual Inferior alveolar Dental Incisive Mental Meningeal branch * (to middle and anterior cranial fossae) Not to be confused with facial (seventh) cranial nerve.

IV­1).  IV­5).  It is the smallest (2,400 axons compared with approximately 1,000,000 in the optic nerve).  It is the only nerve to exit from the dorsal aspect of the brain stem.  It is the only nerve in which all of the lower motor neuron axons decussate.  VI­1).  Because of its long intracranial course and its position, just inferior to the free edge of the tentorium cerebelli, the nerve is at risk during surgical approaches to the midbrain.  Because of the tendency to tilt the head to compensate for a paralysed superior oblique muscle, fourth nerve palsies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of torticollis (twisted neck).

III­7 and III­8).  Since elevating the eye without elevating the eyelid would leave the pupil covered, levator palpebrae superioris and superior rectus muscles also act together.  Here they leave the nerve to the inferior oblique muscle and terminate in the ciliary ganglion near the apex of the cone of extraocular muscles.  III­9 A and B). The visceral motor fibers control the tone of their target muscles, the constrictor pupillae and the ciliary muscles; they therefore control the size of the pupil and the shape of the lens.

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