# Contest Problem Book IV: Annual High School Examinations, by Ralph A. Artino

By Ralph A. Artino

Read Online or Download Contest Problem Book IV: Annual High School Examinations, 1973-1982 (Anneli Lax New Mathematical Library) (Bk. 4) PDF

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Additional resources for Contest Problem Book IV: Annual High School Examinations, 1973-1982 (Anneli Lax New Mathematical Library) (Bk. 4)

Sample text

In Fig.

Passive strain rate In local principal axes, the three principal strain rates (eigenvalues) are α, β and γ, where α > 0 is elongational, γ < 0 is compressional, and β may be either; the corresponding eigenvectors are eα , eβ , eγ . In principal axes, Pω2 = 2(αωα2 + βωβ2 − |γ|ωγ2 ) locally, so the relative orientations between the vorticity vector and strain-rate tensor are of considerable dynamical interest. Ashurst et al. (1987) with DNS data and Tsinober et al. (1992) with experiment (and subsequently others) found that in isotropic turbulence vorticity ﬂuctuations tend to align with the second principal eigenvector of the strain-rate tensor, and that this eigenvalue tends to be positive with a ratio α : β : γ of roughly 2 : 1 : −3.

I sij ωj = 4 13 ω Pω2 = 2 ωi sij ωj = − Ps2 = − sij sjk ski (2) Thus, on average, the rates of strain-rate and vorticity production are proportional. Whereas the proportionalities between ω 2 and s2 , and between Pω2 and Ps2 , are only true after the ensemble average, the productions of enstrophy and strain-rate variance are given also locally by the middle expressions in (3). Thus, there is dynamic signiﬁcance to conditional averages of these quantities within structures. Dynamics of small-scale vorticity and strain-rate structures 4.

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