By Niu, Michael C. Y.
This booklet is meant to enhance the technical realizing and useful wisdom of complex composites, emphasizing the layout and manufacture of airframe buildings. All facets of composite layout are mentioned in an intensive and rigorous style along with directions, observations, layout elements, execs and cons of layout circumstances, and troubleshooting innovations. one other goal of this publication is to provide composite designers and engineers a realistic layout software, containing vast facts and knowledge received from prior event and classes realized in layout and fabrication of composite parts that may be used to layout low-priced and weight effective composite constructions with excessive structural integrity. Composite airframe structural layout encompasses just about all the engineering disciplines, and engineers desire hands-on info and knowledge which are technically sound and emphasize rational layout and technical research. This ebook used to be written with that desire in brain.
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Additional info for Composite Airframe Structures - Practical Design Information and Data
0 Some require post-cure for maximization of Tg Require volatile management during in processing (b) “Dry” Thermoplastic Prepreg Materials More difficult to prepreg than “Wet” Dry matrices have no inherent tack and drape at room temperature Have no shelf life or time constraints Melt fusible, no chemical reaction Solution or hot melt impregnated Amorphous and/or semi-crystalline One of the most critical factors is lack of an extensive database of performance properties over service time. Military aircraft structural applications are one of the major drivers to develop thermoplastics for use as high-temperature composite matrices and four major requirements are: High temperature capabilities (range 350°F (177°C))under severe hot/wet environmental conditions Better damage tolerance in primary structures Easily automated in order to drive down manufacturing process costs Lower total part-acquisition and lifetime costs (including material, processing, and supportability) To understand differences between thermoplastic matrices, an overview of properties dependent on their microstructure is shown in Fig.
1, involves application of heat and pressure to a layup laminate in controlled cycle. 0 will not be addressed in this Chapter. In this chapter, only those manufacturing methods which are applicable to airframe structures will be discussed. I I ' I Batch acceptance Lay UP ' Material specification ' I 4 Bagging i I L-----I Assembly I c Process specification Inspect - Cure Fig. 1 A Flow Chart of Composite Laminate Part Fabrication 176 - I Manufacturing In composite manufacturing, it is difficult to draw a clear line between manufacturing and tooling systems because they are so closely related each other.
A prime consideration for selection of materials for fabrication of large tools used for curing composite structures is compatibility of thermal expansion between the tool and part. Tooling materials currently used are Aluminum or steel - fabricated by standard metalworking techniques Electroformed nickel Composite mold tooling - Laid up and cured over a master model to produce a mold tool Fig. 4 gives both the coefficients of thermal expansion and coefficients of thermal conductivity for most commonly used tooling materials.