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Additional resources for Chemical Solution Deposition Of Semiconductor Films (Food Science & Technology Seri)
Often, what is deposited is a hydroxide or hydrated oxide. In many cases, hydroxide ion is generated slowly. 1) where the carbonate formed partially hydrolyses to give OHϪ. g. by complexation of the metal ions or by carrying out the reaction at low temperature. The hydroxide reacts with the metal ion to give the metal hydroxide, a hydrated oxide or an oxide, depending on the chemistry of the particular metal(hydr)oxy system. The hydroxides or hydrated oxides can be heated in air or oxygen to form the oxides.
All Rights Reserved. 49) The spectrophotometer measures the transmission and, if an absorption measurement is carried out, converts the transmission into absorbance using these equations. This conversion works fine for samples where there is no reflection, either specular or diffuse, as is the case for nonturbid solutions. However, for films there is invariably some reflection, which is often quite large, particularly for films of high dielectric constant (or refractive index) materials, such as PbS and PbSe.
Another method used to deposit oxides, particularly those with a higher oxidation state than the starting cation, uses persulphate, S2O 2Ϫ 8 , a strong oxidizing agent. 2 Sulphide Thiourea (SC(NH2)2), the sulphur analogue of urea, is the most commonly used sulphur precursor. There are a number of possible decomposition routes for thiourea in aqueous solution (it is invariably used in alkaline solutions). 5) which generates sulphide ion (the cyanamide, CN2H2, can hydrolyze further, but this need not concern us at present).