By G. R. Choppin (auth.), Gregory R. Choppin, Mikhail Kh. Khankhasayev (eds.)
Separation applied sciences are of the most important significance to the objective of considerably decreasing the amount of high-level nuclear waste, thereby lowering the long term well-being dangers to mankind. overseas co-operation, together with the sharing of strategies and techniques, in addition to expertise move, is key in accelerating study and improvement within the field.
The writers of this ebook are all across the world regarded specialists within the box of separation expertise, good certified to evaluate and criticize the present kingdom of separation study in addition to to spot destiny possibilities for the appliance of separation applied sciences to the answer of nuclear waste administration difficulties. the foremost emphases within the ebook are learn possibilities within the usage of cutting edge and in all probability extra effective and price powerful approaches for waste processing/treatment, actinide speciation/separation tools, technological processing, and environmental restoration.
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Extra resources for Chemical Separation Technologies and Related Methods of Nuclear Waste Management: Applications, Problems, and Research Needs
The better known and deployed solid fuel materials include carbides, hydrides, nitrides, 2 MW - megawatt;MgU - megagrams U;GWd - gigawatt; kglMg - kilogram! megagram 43 silicides, and a variety of alloys. Materials that have been studied as fluid fuels include molten fluoride salts and aqueous solutions of sulfates. Fluid fuel reactors have not found commercial application. 3. TYPES OF FUEL BY REACTOR TYPE Over time the large variety of reactor types and the associated fuels that have been studied have been winnowed down to a few basic types.
Their reprocessing program, like most other nations, has the dual goals of producing plutonium for weapons production and of recycling fuel values for use power reactors. However, it appears that to date the emphasis is on producing plutonium for weapons production. 3. India. India has an ambitious fuel recycle program with several small reprocessing plants, including one for reprocessing carbide fuels from FRs. Unlike most other countries, India has stressed development of the fuel cycle based on thorium in addition to uranium as the basic feed material.
India has pursued an independent approach to fuel reprocessing centered about their desires to capitalize on their large resource of thorium, and to develop an entirely indigenous fuel cycle capability. The latter desire has led them to deployment of the heavy water reactor (HWR) and to development activities directed toward HWR fuels. 5. Russia. 1. 6. HLW VITRIFICAnON The large commercial spent fuel reprocessing plants in France and the United Kingdom include high-level radioactive waste (HLW) vitrification as part of their reprocessing operations.