By Ihor Gussak, Charles Antzelevitch, Stephen C. Hammill, Win K. Shen, Preben Bjerregaard
A entire assessment of all of the most up-to-date advancements in cardiac electrophysiology, concentrating on either the scientific and experimental features of ventricular repolarization, together with newly came upon scientific repolarization syndromes, electrocardiographic phenomena, and their correlation with the latest advances in uncomplicated technology. The authors remove darkness from the elemental electrophysiologic, molecular, and pharmacologic mechanisms underlying ventricular repolarization, relate them to precise affliction stipulations, and think about the way forward for antiarrhythmic drug improvement in accordance with either molecular and electrophysiological homes. additionally they totally assessment the medical presentation and administration of particular cardiac repolarization stipulations.
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Additional info for Cardiac Repolarization: Bridging Basic and Clinical Science (Contemporary Cardiology)
73. Gettes LS. The electrophysiologic effects of antiarrhythmic drugs. Am J Cardiol 1971;28:526–535. 74. Davis LD, Temte JV. Electrophysiological actions of lidocaine on canine ventricular muscle and Purkinje fibers. Circ Res 1969;24:639–655. 75. Bigger JT, Mandel WJ. Effect of lidocaine on the electrophysiological properties of ventricular muscle and Purkinje fibers. J Clin Invest 1970;49:63–77. 76. Task Force of the Working Group on Arrhythmias of the European Society of Cardiology. The Sicilian Gambit.
Ito,s density is also variable in mouse and ferret left ventricles (32–34), being detected only in (ferret) endocardial (32) and (mouse) septum (33,34) ventricular cells. The densities of ventricular IKs and IKr are also variable. In dog, for example, IKs density is higher in epicardial and endocardial cells than in M cells (52). There are also Chapter 3 / Nerbonne and Kass 33 regional differences IKr and IKs expression in guinea pig LV (93,94). In cells isolated from the LV free wall, for example, the density of IKr is higher in subepicardial, than in midmyocardial or subendocardial, myocytes (94).
The fact that the properties of ventricular Ito,f in different species are similar (Table 1) led to the hypothesis that the molecular correlates of functional ventricular Ito,f channels in different species are the same (5), and considerable experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis has now been provided. Indeed, all available evidence suggests that members of the Kv4 subfamily of α subunits encode functional ventricular Ito,f channels (2,3). Nevertheless, there are differences in the biophysical properties of ventricular Ito,f channels, suggesting that there are subtle, albeit important, differences in the molecular correlates of these channels in different species.