By Jiří V Černý; Bedr̆ich Moldan
Exclusive multinational individuals current examine of small catchments to check a number of environmental difficulties, particularly these of acidification, woodland administration and land-use alterations. Divided into components, it introduces theoretical suggestions by way of a evaluate of atmospheric deposition and assessment of weathering and erosion methods. the second one part bargains with the technique of the given self-discipline, stressing novel methods and discussing difficulties
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Extra info for Biogeochemistry of small catchments : a tool for environmental research ; [summary of meeting held in Most, Czechoslovakia Nov. 1990]
1992; Dise and Wright, 1992). , 1990). In the USA small catchments are widely used: Herrmann (1990) is proposing their use for national parks monitoring. An actual national network based on small catchments is the Long-Term Ecological Research Network, where both Coweeta and Hubbard Brook are included (Brenneman, 1989). , 1993). In Norway, already in 1980 a landmark study on the effects of acid deposition was published, based on small catchment research (Drab10s and Tollan, 1980). The network established in the 1970s is still in operation.
Palaeoecological methods were used to test the hypothesis of natural ecosystem acidification (Ford, 1990). Chemical analyses of fractionated sediments indicated historical change in the inputs of major elements including aluminium, manganese, iron, silicon and calcium. The analyses revealed patterns of biogeochemical cycling, weathering and soil formation, which affected the historical dynamics of the terrestrial and aquatic communities resulting in enhanced pH changes. 4 MANIPULATION EXPERIMENTS Very specific for small catchments are manipulation experiments enabling one to verify hypotheses derived from monitoring of undisturbed catchments.
The transit times are determined by the velocity and pathways of the water particles which in turn are determined by the hydraulic conductivity and the porosity of the soil and bedrock, the rate of groundwater recharge and topography. Transit times also vary from storm to storm in that the wetter the soil and the higher the groundwater table, the larger will be the fraction of short-residence-time water in the runoff. , 1990, Robson and Neal, 1990). Water signatured by surface soils is generally rich in dissolved organics and has low pH.