By Kenneth Sauer (Eds.)
This quantity contains spectroscopic equipment for the characterization of macromolecules. tools span the electromagnetic spectrum from X-ray to microwaves. It specializes in the categories of data that may be derived: how measurements are made; cutting-edge equipment; facts acquisition, research, and interpretation; casebook examples; and new advancements and destiny instructions.
* Ultraviolet and visual Spectroscopy, including
* Absorption and round Dichroism
* temporary Absorption and Kinetics
* Linear Dichroism and Fluorescence
* Vibrational Spectroscopy
* Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
* X-Ray Spectroscopy
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Additional info for Biochemical Spectroscopy, 1st Edition
7M. F. Maestre, G. C. Salzman, R. A. Tobey, and C. Bustamante, Biochemistry 24, 5152 (1985). 18 L. D. Barron, M. P. Bogaard, and A. D. Buckingham, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 95, 603 (1973). 14] CIRCULARDICHROISM 39 surements on biopolymers feasible. 19 These and other developments in ROA have been reviewed, z°'z~ Theoretical A s p e c t s The theoretical basis of CD is discussed in several reviews. 22-25 A quantity called the rotational strength, which is a property of a given electronic or vibrational transition, generally provides the connection between theory and experiment in CD.
Holzwarth  describes techniques for measuring and analyzing timeresolved fluorescence; he discusses applications to dynamics of proteins, nucleic acids, and membranes. Time-resolved two-dimensional microscopic images show promise of revealing detailed information about the location and motions of fluorophores in ceils. The article by Waggoner  is pertinent for everyone who uses fluorescence in research. It describes criteria for choosing a fluorophore for labeling a biomolecule, and gives detailed protocols for labeling proteins and nucleic acids.
32 ULTRAVIOLET/VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY  CD and absorption spectra of four duplexes with different mixtures of complementary DNA and RNA strands, each duplex containing alternating A. T and G. C base pairs (except that T in the DNA strands is replaced by U in the analogous RNA strands). The RNA duplex r(AG)12"r(CU)~2 had a negative band at 210 nm and a larger positive band above 250 nm than did the DNA duplex d(AG)12" d(CT)12. These CD features are characteristics that generally distinguish the A-RNA conformation from the B-DNA conformation.