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2nd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2005. Landau WM. Artificial intelligence: the brain transplant cure for parkinsonism. Neurology. 1990;40:733-740. Leitch B. Ultrastructure of electrical synapses: review. Electron Microsc Rev. 1992;5:311-339. Nicholls JG, Wallace BG, Fuchs PA, et al. From Neuron to Brain. 4th ed. Sunderland, MS: Sinauer; 2001. Peters A, Palay SL, Webster HdeF. The Fine Structure of the Nervous System: Neurons and Their Supporting Cells. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1991.
This lost part of the neuron can be regrown when the injury occurs within the territory of the peripheral nervous system. The reparative process is known as axonal regeneration. It is important to distinguish between the use of the word regeneration and the replacement of lost cells by mitosis and reorganization of tissue. In a severed nerve, the regeneration of axons requires surgical apposition of the cut ends. A crushing injury (or freezing a short length of nerve in a laboratory animal) transects the axons but leaves the connective tissue framework of the nerve intact to guide growing axons to their appropriate destinations.
They have microvilli at their apical surfaces and invaginations at their basal surfaces, which rest on a basement membrane. Adjacent choroidal epithelial cells are joined by tight junctions, thus preventing the passive movement of substances from the blood into the CSF. These cells are metabolically active in controlling the chemical composition of the CSF, which is secreted by the choroid plexuses into the cerebral ventricles (see Chapter 26). Microglia About 5% of the total neuroglial population in the CNS is composed of resting microglial cells.