Atlas of Topographical and Applied Human Anatomy, Vol. 2: by Eduard Pernkopf, Helmut Ferner, Henry Monsen

By Eduard Pernkopf, Helmut Ferner, Henry Monsen

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Extra resources for Atlas of Topographical and Applied Human Anatomy, Vol. 2: Thorax, Abdomen and Extremities (v. 2)

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The endoplasmic reticulum, or ER, consists of stacks of flattened sacs involved in the production of various materials. In cross-section, they appear as a series of mazelike channels, often closely associated with the nucleus. When ribosomes are present, the ER (called rough ER) attaches polysaccharide groups to polypeptides as they are assembled by the ribosomes. Smooth ER, without ribosomes, is responsible for various activities, including the synthesis of lipids and hormones, especially in cells that produce these substances for export from the cell.

The RNA polymerase and the newly created RNA molecule are released. This newly created RNA molecule may be mRNA, tRNA, or rRNA, depending on which DNA segment is transcribed. indd 41 6/16/11 3:28 PM CliffsNotes Anatomy & Physiology Quick Review Transcription and RNA processing. AAA Nucleus A DNA exon template DNA A C T exo n G 3 terminator G RNA Polymerase n int ron Transcription (Steps 1, 2, 3) P i n tr o 2 5' cap catalyst removing intron G new RN A st r a n d C U A AA intron 1 promoter A poly-A tail P Figure 2-10 4A 4B P 42 4C RNA processing (Steps 4A, 4B, 4C) ■ During RNA processing, newly created mRNA molecules undergo two kinds of alterations.

Vesicles often migrate to and merge with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents outside of the cell. Figure 2-2 The general organization of a typical cell. indd 24 ribosomes (free-floating and fixed) rough endoplasmic reticulum cilia or flagella 6/16/11 3:28 PM Chapter 2: The Cell 25 ■ Lysosomes are vesicles from a Golgi apparatus that contain digestive enzymes. They break down food, cellular debris, and foreign invaders such as bacteria. ■ Mitochondria carry out aerobic respiration, a process in which energy (in the form of ATP) is obtained from carbohydrates.

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