By Penny Dowdy
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Extra info for Animal Cells
Stille, Darlene P. Animal Cells: Smallest Units of Life. Mankato, Minnesota: Compass Point Books, 2006. Walker, Richard. Kingfisher Knowledge Genes and DNA. London: Kingfisher, 2007. htm The problem with the gene pool is that there’s no lifeguard. David Gerrold (1944–present, sci-fi author) 45 Glossary allele Different forms of the same gene, which determines a trait chromosomes Coiled threads of DNA containing genes asexual reproduction Formation of a new organism with cells from only one parent cloning Creating a second genetically identical being atoms Smallest building blocks of living and nonliving things connective cells Cells that store fat and protect organs in the body bacteria Type of prokaryotic organism cytokinesis A stage of cell changes in mitosis, meiosis, and fertilization bilateral body symmetry The quality of a body to have line symmetry 46 cytoplasm Jelly-like substance found inside the cell membrane budding Asexual reproduction in which offspring come from an outgrowth of the parent deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Long strand of genetic information found in a cell’s nucleus cell membrane Outer barrier of an animal cell that allows materials to pass in and out dominant The trait that will show itself even if it is on only one chromosome cells Smallest units that make up every living thing double helix Spiral consisting of two strands of DNA, resembles the shape of a spiral staircase cellular respiration Breaking down food and exchanging carbon dioxide for oxygen electron microscope A tool for viewing small substances by using a beam of electrons instead of light centrioles Organelles in animal cells needed for cell division embryos Undeveloped animals cephalization Development of a nervous system endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Series of canals, like veins, running through the cell epigenetics Having to do with the effects of the environment on an organism’s genes mitosis Type of cell division that produces two identical cells epithelial cells Cells that line organs muscle cells Cells that allow movement eukaryote Organism made of cells that contain nuclei nerve cells Cells that communicate through the nervous system fragmentation Asexual reproduction in which an organism breaks into parts that become like the parent nucleus Control center of plant or animal cells gametes Reproductive cells with half the normal genetic material genes The parts of DNA that control inherited traits genome The total genetic information for an organism haploid cells Cells that contain only one copy of a chromosome set humors Four fluids once considered to control health junk DNA Sections of chromosomes in between genes that do not code for proteins light microscopes Tools for viewing small substances using lenses and focused light organelles General name for parts of a cell parthenogenesis Asexual reproduction of a seed, spore, or the like organisms made of cells that do not contain nuclei prokaryotes Organisms made of cells that do not contain nuclei recessive The trait that will show itself if the code for it is on both chromosomes regeneration Asexual replacement of an injured or lost body part spontaneous generation Idea that living things can arise from nonliving matter stem cells Cells that can develop into a variety of cell types tissues Structural materials that work together in an organism meiosis Type of cell division which forms the sex cells (egg and sperm) mitochondrion An organelle that turns food into energy 47 Index allele 34, 35 anaphase 25, 28, 29 Aristotle 10 asexual reproduction 26, 27, 34 atoms 12 fragmentation 27 bacteria 15, 23 bilateral body symmetry 32 budding 26 Human Genome Project 37 humors 8 cell membrane 16, 20 cells 4–31, 33, 34, 37, 40, 41 cellular respiration 17 centrioles 25, 28, 29 cephalization 33 chromatin 21 chromosomes 20, 21, 22, 25, 28, 29 cloning 5 connective cells 18, 19 cytokinesis 25, 28, 29 cytoplasm 16, 17, 20 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 20–23, 25, 28, 29, 34, 36–39, 42, 43 dominant 34, 35 electron microscope 12, 13 embryos 9, 24 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) 17 epigenetics 42, 43 epithelial cells 18, 19 eukaryote 14, 15 48 gametes 28, 34 genes 4, 34, 36–39, 42, 43 genome 37 junk DNA 22 Knoll, Max 12 Leeuwenhoek, Antonie van 6, 7, 9, 12 light microscopes 12, 13 meiosis 28, 29, 34 Mendel, Gregor 35 metaphase 25, 28, 29 Missy, the dog 4, 5 mitochondrion 17, 22, 23 mitosis 24–26, 41 muscle cells 18, 19 nerve cells 18, 19 nuclear envelope 20-21 nuclear pores 20-21 nucleus 14, 15, 16, 20–25, 28, 29, 34 organelles 14-17 parthenogenesis 27 prokaryotes 15, 28, 29 prophase 25 Purkinje, Jan 9 recessive 35, 25 Redi, Francesco 10 Reeve, Christopher 41 regeneration 27 Remak, Robert 11 Royal Society of London 7 Ruska, Ernst 12 Schwann, Theodor 9 Sperling, John 4, 5 spontaneous generation 10 stem cells 40, 41 telophase 25, 28, 29 tissues 9, 14, 15, 18, 19, 32, 41 Virchow, Rudolf 11 What are animal cells made of and how do we know?
Seal the bag and place your cell in the refrigerator. It will take several hours for the gelatin to firm up. 6. Use the diagram on pages 16-17 to identify the parts of your cell model. 44 For Further Information Books Snedden, Robert. Animals: Multicelled Life. Mankato, Minnesota: Heinemann Library, 2008. Stille, Darlene P. Animal Cells: Smallest Units of Life. Mankato, Minnesota: Compass Point Books, 2006. Walker, Richard. Kingfisher Knowledge Genes and DNA. London: Kingfisher, 2007. htm The problem with the gene pool is that there’s no lifeguard.
Another type of cell is found inside the creature. These cells take in nutrients when water flows through the sponge. Many sponges are simple. You could pull one apart, piece by piece, and any part with both types of cells could turn into a new sponge. In the Lab Sponges are called filter feeders. They draw water in and filter out the food. Filter feeders help people monitor the environment. If the water is polluted, the sponges will suffer. People can use this as a signal that there is a problem.