By Hal Whitehead

While you are within the box of ethology or behavioral ecology, or anything learning animal habit, this booklet offers every thing you must find out about social analyses. Hal Whitehead lays out designated yet comprehensible guideline on every little thing from info assortment to software program courses. i like it.

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**Additional resources for Analyzing Animal Societies: Quantitative Methods for Vertebrate Social Analysis**

**Example text**

The true value of r is compared with the distribution of these random râ€™s to investigate its statistical significance. , whether grooming rates are related to association indices after controlling for difference in dominance rank) (Smouse et al. 1986; Hemelrijk 1990a). 5 Data Matrices Social data are usually represented by matrices (two-way tables of numbers). There are two principal forms. The simplest form is the rectangular data matrix. It is indexed by subjects (by convention giving the rows) and variables (the columns).

Permutation tests are discussed in some detail by Manly (1997). Technical issues that need considering include how many permutations to carry out. In the usual situations in which permutations are independent, 1,000 permutations are usually sufficient, although more may be used if the P value is close to a critical value. There are some permutation tests, including one that is very important in social analysis (Bejder et al. 9), in which the permutations are not independent TECHNICAL MATTERS 35 of one another.

There are many pitfalls here (some noted by Wilson 1975, pp. , into bits), and how to standardize time scales. I do not cover these areas in this book, but Bradbury and Vehrencamp (1998, esp. pp. 387â€“418) provide an excellent introduction. 20 CHAPTER ONE r Fraction of time devoted to social behavior. This useful measure of sociality is one product of an ethogram that is described by Lehner (1998, pp. 90â€“93) but is not covered in this book. The proportion of energy devoted to social behavior would also be of interest.