Amazing Plants (Read It Yourself - Level 2) by Lorraine Horsley

By Lorraine Horsley

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The suberinized cells die and form a compact and totally impermeable isolation and protection layer with functions comparable to those of the cuticle. -hydroxy acids. In addition the chain length of the respective dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids, and alcohols often exceeds 18. In contrast, epoxy and polyhydroxy acids are less frequent. III. DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION IN PLANTS The cell as smallest autonomous unit of all living systems is a clearly defined entity with the same basic configuration and pattern of physiological reactions throughout the plant body.

Is has been calculated for rye that per day more than 100 million root hairs are formed. The absorption capacity of the root can be considerably increased by a symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. These associations in the root regions are termed mycorrhizae. In the field these fungi are more the rule than an exception. This particularly holds true for forest trees, where mycorrhiza formation leads to a suppression of root hairs accompanied by conspicuous morphological changes in the root region. The fungal partner especially improves the uptake of mineral nutrients, particularly phosphate, because of the extended absorption area and the larger surface of the fungal mycelium.

Fig. 36). The green plant represents the diploid sporophyte. The leaves bearing sporangia (sporophylls) produce within their sporangia meiospores that serve propagation and dispersal. Each spore develops a haploid gametophyte, the prothallium, where the sexual organs are formed. The male gametes (spermatocytes) are released from the antheridia. They are chemotactically attracted by the archegonia, which contain a single egg cell each, ready for fertilization. A new sporophyte develops from the zygote.

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