By A. Rendle Short and C. I. Ham (Auth.)
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Additional info for A Synopsis of Physiology
Only a trace of protein (chiefly globulin), much increased in inflammation of méninges. A few leucocytes, also increased in inflammation of méninges. Much C 0 2 . —Formed from choroid plexus in ventricles, probably by active secretion. , pear-shaped protrusions of t h e arachnoid into a sinus. Blocking of foramen of Majendie causes hydrocephalus (increased fluid in ventricles). 28 THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID The Cerebrospinal Fluid, continued. —Stated to be the same as cerebral venous pressure. —Needle is inserted between 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrae.
A. In 3rd, 4th, and 5th cervical anterior nerve-roots by phrenic nerves to diaphragm. If spinal cord is injured below 5th cervical segment, respiration can still continue. b. By anterior nerve-roots in dorsal region to intercostal and abdominal muscles. c. By vagi to muscles abducting vocal cords and widening glottis during inspiration, and to bronchi. Stimulation of vagus causes constriction of bronchioles and diminished air-entry. On section of vagus, bronchioles dilate. Injection of atropine leads to greater air-entry into lungs, while injection of muscarine causes spasm of bronchioles.
1. —Pressure greater than 5 atmospheres is dangerous. —Occurs on too sudden return to normal pressure. Due to blocking and rupture of capillaries by sudden evolution of gases dissolved at high pressure. —(a) Paralysis ; (b) Pain in muscles, joints, and abdomen ; (c) Collapse. 2. — MOUNTAIN SICKNESS may occur on ascending from sea level to height of about 10,000 ft. Symptoms appear when oxygen pressure falls below 13 to 15 per cent, varying with individuals. Probably due to lack of oxygen, though diminution of COa has been suggested as the cause (Mosso).