A revision of the genus Cinchona by Maria Lucia Kawasaki

By Maria Lucia Kawasaki

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Tepfer (2002) reported that, as of October 2001, 794 approvals had been granted for US field trials of GM viral-resistant plants covering a wide diversity of crops. By 2001, three crops, squash, potato and papaya, containing genes derived from pathogenic viruses had been deregulated in the United States. Today, virus-resistant papaya and squash remain on the market. , 2003). Nevertheless, papaya resistant to ringspot virus is a good example of how a technological innovation possibly saved an industry in a region (Gonsalves, 2003).

The risks have been determined to be acceptable or manageable based on the knowledge of the crop, the trait, the likely receiving environment and the interactions among these. , 1999). , 2003), but the absence of wild relatives in areas of corn and cotton production result in a risk that is effectively zero. As such, the environmental impact associated with gene flow from the current products that have completed regulatory review has been shown to be minimal, but issues of product stewardship and volunteer management are receiving careful attention.

GM technology is being utilized as one solution to alleviate some of the stresses created by expansion of consumer demand in non-food products. , 2000). Both approaches are targeting trees used in plantations, and depending on their success could result in more efficient production of wood products from fixed operations. In the longer term, transgenic trees could reduce the need for harvesting wood from natural areas such as forests, which would have clear environmental benefits globally. 5 Other GM plants There are many other examples of GM plants and traits that are being developed that are not reviewed here.

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