A Century of Nobel Prize Recipients: Chemistry, Physics, and by Francis Leroy

By Francis Leroy

Celebrating a century of innovative contributions to our realizing of lifestyles, the area, and the universe, this encyclopedic table reference lines the discoveries that earned approximately 500 amazing scientists Nobel honors within the components of chemistry, physics, and drugs. the varsity of Library magazine known as it "...eye-catching... unique art, colourful captioned drawings of types and buildings, and diagrams illustrate complicated medical rules and should invite searching. ...great snap shots and beautiful format..." This booklet comprises over 550 complete colour illustrations and pictures, and is a needs to for the library of any public, college, enterprise, or own library.

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Upon isolating the influenza virus and inactivating it with formaldehyde, he observed that a virus inacti- - 47 - Electron micrograph of a tobacco mosaic virus. The illustration shows the helical array of protein subunits around a singlestranded RNA molecule. Influenza virus. The transmembrane glycoproteins form the spikes seen in electron micrographs. One of these glycoproteins enables the virus to enter and infect susceptible cells. vated in this way could still trigger antibody production in man.

Still using his tracer method, he used heavy water to study water transfer in biological systems. The discovery of artificial radioactivity by Frédéric Joliot in 1934 opened prospects for using radioisotopes of elements having greater biological significance. For example, he now had 32S and 32P; later, he would use 45Ca, 42K, 24Na, 38Cl, and 14C. Our current chemical knowledge of the metabolism of living organisms is based on such research. In 1944 Hevesy was appointed Professor at the Institute of Organic Chemistry in Stockholm and he took the Swedish nationality in 1945.

Frederick Aston thus elucidated the famous problem raised by William Richards, Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry in 1914, who had measured atomic masses significantly different from whole numbers. Aston showed discharge tubes, still called Crookes tubes, which had made it possible for the British physicist to discover the ratio of the charge-to-mass of the electron in 1897. In 1910, Aston and Thomson used it to study neon and discovered therein the existence of isotopes whose masses are, at first glance, whole numbers.

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